What is Evidence Based Practice?
Evidence based practice (EBP) has many definitions. A widely cited definition is adapted from this definition of evidence based medicine (EBM):
"the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research" (Sackett et al, 1996)
However, many have argued that this definition has flaws, and have offered alternatives. This one highlights the need for nurses to integrate the evidence with their own professional judgement with the patient's preferences:
"an approach to decision making in which the clinician uses the best evidence available, in consultation with the patient, to decide upon the option which suits the patient best" (Muir Gray, 1997)
The practice of Evidence-Based Practice is generally based on five fundamental steps.
Step 1: Formulating a well-built question
Step 2: Identifying articles and other evidence-based resources that answer the question (Finding the evidence)
Step 3: Critically appraising the evidence to assess its validity
Step 4: Applying the evidence
Step 5: Re-evaluating the application of evidence and areas for improvement
Levels and quality of evidence
Reference: Evidence-Based Practice in the Health Sciences: Evidence-Based Nursing Tutorial, Information Services Department of the Library of the Health Sciences-Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago. Creative Commons License
Muir Gray, J.A. (1997) Evidence-based health care: how to make health policy and management decisions. London: Churchill Livingstone.
Sackett, D., Rosenberg, W., Gray, J., Haynes, R., & Richardson, W. (1996). Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal, 312(7023), 71-72.